Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque. the Tomb. the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for buildings of lesser importance such as public baths. fountains and domestic architecture.  
Influences and styles
A specifically recognisable Islamic architectural style emerged soon after Muhammad 's time, developing from localized adaptations of Egyptian. Persian /Sassanid and Byzantine models. An early example may be identified as early as 691 AD with the completion of the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhrah ) in Jerusalem. It featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, and the use of stylized repeating decorative patterns (arabesque ).
The Great Mosque of Kairouan
(in Tunisia ), considered as the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world . is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a massive square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas. 
The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq. completed in 847 AD, combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed.
The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul also influenced Islamic architecture. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines. they converted the basilica to a mosque (now a museum) and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work (e.g. domes ). The Hagia Sophia also served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque. and the R