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Title: E Learning and CLI Virtuoso Author: Mark Svorinic Last modified by: Rachel Wilson Created Date: 8/30/2002 8:46:11 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Title: Network Architecture

Network Architecture Standards
  • Unit 2, Chapter 3 4
  • Why Standards?
Objectives
  • Explain the importance of network architecture.
  • Identify 802.x LAN standards as described by
IEEE.
  • Match the seven layers of the OSI model to

    network equipment and their role in

    cross-platform interoperability
  • Describe the function of a network access PDU.
  • Differentiate between connectionless and connection-oriented protocols.
  • Describe selected basic functions of a protocol.
  • Architectures Standards
    • Networks Architecture Principles in the design
    and implementation of a network
  • Reduction in complexity, common solution
  • Isolate network complexities from users
  • Ability to connect different types of devices
  • Management of the network
  • Communications Standards Rules to establish compatibility among similar products
  • View Points
  • Vendor IBM, DEC, Microsoft, Novell
  • Industry IEEE, ANSI, NIST
  • Vendor Technologies
    • Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
    • Digital Network Architecture (DNA)
    • Burroughs Network Architecture (BNA)
    • Novell (IPX/SPX - XNS)
    • Banyan Virtual Integrated Network Services(Vines

    - XNS)

    IEEE 802 StandardsInstitute of Electrical and

    Electronics Engineers

    International Telecommunications Union
    • Most important telecommunications standards
    setting body
  • V. Standards Connection of digital equipment to analog PSTN lines
  • X. Standards Connection of digital equipment to digital lines
  • Development of the Open System Interconnect Model with International Standards Organization
  • Basis for interconnecting dissimilar systems
  • Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Model

    OSI Model Layers
    • Application Layer (7)
    • Where user works with at a terminal
    • Presentation Layer (6)
    • Code conversion data reformatting from
    application - network
  • Session Layer (5)
  • Establishing the communications rules(pacing, accounting)
  • Turns communications on off
  • Transport Layer (4)
  • Identifies the actual address of recipient of the message
  • Responsible for ensuring data is transmitted (retransmission)
  • Network Layer (3)
  • Routing message to recipient
  • Establishes, maintains and terminates communications
  • Data Link Layer (2)
  • Establishing link between 2 points packing data, block transfers
  • Physical Layer (1)
  • Electrical components for the communication
  • http//www.reskit.net/MCTFAQS/The20OSI20Model20

    as20explained20by20Laura.htm

  • More OSI
    • X.25 standard for data transmission
    • Used in packet switching networks
    • 1st 3 OSI layers (physical, data link, network)
    • Encapsulation process that surrounds the

    original data or requests with control characters

    for routing and error checking

    Protocol Data Unit

    Internet Architecture Principles
    • Multiplexing
    • Multiple Independent data streams on one physical
    communication line
  • Survivability
  • Message gets through no matter what
  • Service Generality
  • Useful for multiple purposes
  • Diverse Network Technologies
  • Accommodate previous network technologies

    (Arpanet, Satellite-based networks.)

  • TCP/IP
    • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
    • Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)
    • Arpanet
    • TCP/IP 4 or 5 layers of OSI Model

    OSI Model OSI Model TCP/IP

    L7 Application Application Application

    L6 Presentation   Application

    L5 Session   Application

    Protocol Stack
    • Protocol Set of rules used for communication
    between 2 points on a network
  • What does the transportation header contain? Pg

    Protocol Examples

    Protocol Functions
    • Encapsulation control information (Where going?
    Is it right? Which protocols to use?)
  • Fragmentation (Segmentation) Re-assembly
  • Error Control using a check character to determine an error in the network access layer
  • Synchronization
  • Ordered Deliver (Sequencing)
  • Addressing
  • Multiplexing
  • Transmission Services
  • Other Protocol Functions
    • Connection Control
    • Connection Oriented TCP
    • Established and maintained before successful
    transmission
  • Connectionless UDP
  • Communication without establishing a connection (PING)
  • Ordered Delivery
  • Important to maintain order of packets connection oriented
  • Flow Control Control data rate sent by

    transmitter

  • Other Protocol Functions
    • Error Control Error Detection Error
    Correction
  • Check Sum, retransmit
  • Sequence Numbering, retransmit
  • Addressing
  • Network, Application
  • Layer dependent
  • Transmission Services
  • Message priority
  • Protocols
    • Transport
    • Ensure messages are exchanged reliably
    • Arrival of all data at the destination
    • Presentation in the same order as sent
    • Virtual Circuit Route between sender Receiver
    • Data Link
    • Communication Startup
    • Character Identification
    • PDU identification, how to process
    • Error Control, what scheme to use
    • Termination
    Review Questions
    • 1. Communications standards define what needs to
    be done but not how to do it.
  • a. True
  • b. False
  • Review Questions
    • 2. Which field in a header tells the destination
    of a message or PDU?
  • a. address
  • b. flag
  • c. byte
  • d. none of the above
  • Review Questions
    • 3. It is more difficult for a machine to process

    a code if all of the bits are of the same

    duration.
  • a. True
  • b. False
  • Review Questions
    • 4. The combination of the first three layers of

    the OSI model is the standard for the

    ______________.
  • a. X.25 standard for data transmission
  • b. V. standard
  • c. consolidated transmission standard
  • d. Consolidated Transmission Protocol
  • surrounded by control characters or other

    information. This process is called

    _____________.
  • a. enclosure
  • b. encapsulation
  • c. isolation
  • d. permutation
  • Review Questions
    • 6. The process of reassembling a message a TCP/IP

    packetized stream of data that has been

    fragmented is called __________.
  • a. reassembly
  • b. reconstitution
  • c. segmentation
  • d. togetherness
  • Review Questions
    • 7. It is much easier for a machine to process a
    code if ____________________.
  • a. it is a true binary code
  • b. all of the characters have the same number of bits
  • c. all of the bits are the same duration
  • d. all of the above
  • Review Questions
    • 8. An example of a communications medium is
    ____________.
  • a. a telephone
  • b. a personal computer
  • c. a teleprinter
  • d. a copper wire
  • Review Questions
    • 9. The PSTN is an example of a _____________.
    • a. mesh network
    • b. star network
    • c. bus network
    • d. ring network
    Review Questions
    • 10. The OSI layer responsible for establishing

    the communication rules between certain machines

    or applications is the ______________.
  • a. network layer
  • b. transport layer
  • c. session layer
  • d. data link layer
  • Homework
    • Assignment Due Next Week
    • Review
    • Chapter 3, pp. 48-66
    • Chapter 4, pp. 72-82
    • Read
    • Chapter 5, pp. 90-101
    • Chapter 14, pp. 376-411
    • Complete
    • Assignment 2.1 Chapter 3 4 Multiple Choice
    Questions
  • Assignment 2.2 Binary Exercise
  • Assignment 2.3 Draw OSI Model (pg 57) by Hand
  • Source: www.powershow.com
    Category: Architecture

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