# Z architecture principles of operation

### Sign extending from a variable bit-width

Sometimes we need to extend the sign of a number but we don't know a priori the number of bits, b, in which it is represented. (Or we could be programming in a language like Java, which lacks bitfields.) The code above requires four operations, but when the bitwidth is a constant rather than variable, it requires only two fast operations, assuming the upper bits are already zeroes.

A slightly faster but less portable method that doesn't depend on the bits in x above position b being zero is:

Sean A. Irvine suggested that I add sign extension methods to this page on June 13, 2004, and he provided m = (1 << (b - 1)) - 1; r = -(x &

m) | x; as a starting point from which I optimized to get m = 1U << (b - 1); r = -(x & m) | x. But then on May 11, 2007, Shay Green suggested the version above, which requires one less operation than mine. Vipin Sharma suggested I add a step to deal with situations where x had possible ones in bits other than the b bits we wanted to sign-extend on Oct. 15, 2008. On December 31, 2009 Chris Pirazzi suggested I add the faster version, which requires two operations

for constant bit-widths and three for variable widths.

### Sign extending from a variable bit-width in 3 operations

The following may be slow on some machines, due to the effort required for multiplication and division. This version is 4 operations. If you know that your initial bit-width, b, is greater than 1, you might do this type of sign extension in 3 operations by using r = (x * multipliers[b]) / multipliers[b], which requires only one array lookup. The following variation is not portable, but on architectures that employ an arithmetic right-shift, maintaining the sign, it should be fast. Randal E. Bryant pointed out a bug on May 3, 2005 in an earlier version (that used multipliers[] for divisors[]), where it failed on the case of x=1 and b=1.

### Conditionally set or clear bits without branching

On some architectures, the lack of branching can more than make up for what appears to be twice as many operations. For instance, informal speed tests on an AMD Athlon™ XP 2100+ indicated it was 5-10% faster. An Intel Core 2 Duo ran the superscalar version about 16% faster than the first. Glenn Slayden informed me of the first expression on December 11, 2003. Marco Yu shared the superscalar version with me on April 3, 2007 and alerted me to a typo 2 days later.

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